Computer monitors become thinner, hard drives lighter, and programming languages more powerful, but coding-by-hand still remains one of the most effective methods to learn how to program. Be it on a whiteboard or notebook, coding-by-hand requires further caution, precision, and intent behind every line of code. Although more time consuming, this restriction will mold you into a more fundamentally sound developer, both in the classroom and the job market. So start early and get used to this old-school practice.
As awesome as it would be to become the next Steve Jobs on your own, the reality is that people learn faster with mentors and peer feedback. What may seem like an immovable bug or topic could be quickly alleviated by a fresh pair of eyes or a new interpretation of the subject. Word of Warning: At Coding Dojo we suggest using the 20 minute rule.
Take at least 20 minutes to figure something out on your own before asking for help. Hint: Stackoverlfow and learn programming are gold mines for online programming assistance. Reading sample code is not enough to understand how it works. To develop a true understanding, you need to actually run the code and tinker with it. Reading is not the same as understanding, and actually trying to write the code yourself, or at least running it, will facilitate the learning process much more.
Despite these 7 tips, the most important ingredient to learn programming faster is to remain confident. To do so, you should expect to fail repeatedly and be patient with your progress; because becoming an expert at anything requires hard work and time.
And if a single doubt ever clouds your mind, remember that every programmer this path before — none of them more destined to become a developer than you. Whichever path you are currently on, be it college or coding boot camp, the only barrier to success is your work ethic and confidence to persevere. Just Apply Now it only takes 2 minutes — an Admissions Counselor will follow-up to see if Coding Dojo is right for you.
Stephen Sinco February 28, Skip to content. Search for:. Learn the programming fundamentals to gain core knowledge As elementary as they may appear at first, programming fundamentals always need to come first: the better you understand them, the easier it is to learn more advanced concepts. Code by hand. Ask for help coding. So far, we have covered two important concepts called variables and their data types.
We discussed how to use int , long , and float to specify different data types. We also learnt how to name the variables to store different values. Though this chapter is not required separately because reserved keywords are a part of basic programming syntax, we kept it separate to explain it right after data types and variables to make it easy to understand. Like int, long, and float, there are many other keywords supported by C programming language which we will use for different purpose.
For example, if you will try to use any reserved keyword for the purpose of variable name, then you will get a syntax error. We know you cannot memorize all these keywords, but we have listed them down for your reference purpose and to explain the concept of reserved keywords.
So just be careful while giving a name to your variable, you should not use any reserved keyword for that programming language. An operator in a programming language is a symbol that tells the compiler or interpreter to perform specific mathematical, relational or logical operation and produce final result. This chapter will explain the concept of operators and it will take you through the important arithmetic and relational operators available in C, Java, and Python.
Computer programs are widely used for mathematical calculations. Similar concepts exist in Computer Programming. These two statements are called arithmetic expressions in a programming language and plus , minus used in these expressions are called arithmetic operators and the values used in these expressions like 2, 3 and x, etc.
In their simplest form, such expressions produce numerical results. Similarly, a programming language provides various arithmetic operators. The following table lists down a few of the important arithmetic operators available in C programming language. Here, it is obvious that variable A is greater than B in values. So, we need the help of some symbols to write such expressions which are called relational expressions.
Similarly, a programming language provides various relational operators. The following table lists down a few of the important relational operators available in C programming language. Here, we will show you one example of C Programming which makes use of if conditional statement. Though this statement will be discussed later in a separate chapter, but in short, we use if statement to check a condition and if the condition is true, then the body of if statement is executed, otherwise the body of if statement is skipped.
Logical operators are very important in any programming language and they help us take decisions based on certain conditions. Suppose we want to combine the result of two conditions, then logical AND and OR logical operators help us in producing the final result. The following table shows all the logical operators supported by the C language.
C programming and Java provide almost identical set of operators and conditional statements. You can try to execute the following program to see the output, which must be identical to the result generated by the above example. Fortunately, C programming and Python programming languages provide almost identical set of operators. This program will create two variables a and b , very similar to C programming, then we assign 10 and 20 in these variables and finally, we will use different arithmetic and relational operators.
Decision making is critical to computer programming. There will be many situations when you will be given two or more options and you will have to select an option based on the given conditions. For example, we want to print a remark about a student based on his secured marks. Now, the question is how to write a programming code to handle such situations.
The above program uses if conditional statements. Here, the first if statement checks whether the given condition i. Here we have only one printf statement to print a remark about the student. Similarly, the second if statement works. If the final result is true, then the conditional statement will be executed, otherwise no statement will be executed.
This tutorial will give you a basic idea on various forms of if statements and an introduction to switch statements available in C programming language. Different programming languages provide different types of decision-making statements, but the basic concept remains the same as explained in this tutorial.
An if statement can be followed by an optional else statement, which executes when the Boolean expression is false. The syntax of an if An if An if statement can be followed by an optional else if Once an else…if succeeds, none of the remaining else…if's or else's will be tested.
Now with the help of if A switch statement is an alternative of if statements which allows a variable to be tested for equality against a list of values. Each value is called a case , and the variable being switched on is checked for each switch case. The expression used in a switch statement must give an integer value, which will be compared for equality with different cases given. Wherever an expression value matches with a case value, the body of that case will be executed and finally, the switch will be terminated using a break statement.
If no break statements are provided, then the computer continues executing other statements available below to the matched case. If none of the cases matches, then the default case body is executed. Now, let's consider another example where we want to write the equivalent English word for a given number. Following is the equivalent program written in Java which too supports if , if You can try to execute the following program to see the output, which must be identical to the result generated by the above C example.
Python provides if , if Here, you must note that Python does not make use of curly braces for conditional body, instead it simply identifies the body of the block using indentation of the statements. Let's consider a situation when you want to print Hello, World! It was simple, but again, let's consider another situation when you want to write Hello, World! We can certainly not write printf statements a thousand times. Almost all the programming languages provide a concept called loop , which helps in executing one or more statements up to a desired number of times.
All high-level programming languages provide various forms of loops, which can be used to execute one or more statements repeatedly. Let's write the above C program with the help of a while loop and later, we will discuss how this loop works. Here, the computer first checks whether the given condition, i. This process repeats till the given condition remains true which means variable "a" has a value less than 5.
To conclude, a loop statement allows us to execute a statement or group of statements multiple times. This tutorial has been designed to present programming's basic concepts to non-programmers, so let's discuss the two most important loops available in C programming language. Once you are clear about these two loops, then you can pick-up C programming tutorial or a reference book and check other loops available in C and the way they work. A while loop starts with a keyword while followed by a condition enclosed in.
A while loop keeps executing its body till a given condition holds true. As soon as the condition becomes false, the while loop comes out and continues executing from the immediate next statement after the while loop body. A condition is usually a relational statement, which is evaluated to either true or false. A value equal to zero is treated as false and any non-zero value works like true.
A while loop checks a given condition before it executes any statements given in the body part. C programming provides another form of loop, called do If you will write the above example using do When the break statement is encountered inside a loop, the loop is immediately terminated and the program control resumes at the next statement following the loop. Following is a variant of the above program, but it will come out after printing Hello World!
The continue statement in C programming language works somewhat like the break statement. Instead of forcing termination, continue forces the next iteration of the loop to take place, skipping any code in between. Following is the equivalent program written in Java that too supports while and do The following program prints Hello, World!
The break and continue statements in Java programming work quite the same way as they work in C programming. Python too supports while and do Here you must note that Python does not make use of curly braces for the loop body, instead it simply identifies the body of the loop using indentation of the statements. You can try to execute the following program to see the output. To show the difference, we have used one more print statement, which will be executed when the loop will be over.
The break and continue statements in Python work quite the same way as they do in C programming. Every programming language provides support for manipulating different types of numbers such as simple whole integers and floating point numbers. C, Java, and Python categorize these numbers in several categories based on their nature.
These data types are called primitive data types and you can use these data types to build more data types, which are called user-defined data types. We have seen various mathematical and logical operations on numbers during a discussion on operators.
So we know how to add numbers, subtract numbers, divide numbers, etc. The following table lists down various useful built-in mathematical functions available in C programming language which can be used for various important mathematical calculations. For example, if you want to calculate the square root of a number, for example, , then you have a built-in function available to calculate the square root.
If you pass this function the length of two sides of a right triangle, it will return the length of the hypotenuse. Following is a simple example to show a few mathematical operations. Besides the above usage, you will use numbers in loop counting, flag representation, true or false values in C programming. Java provides almost all the numeric data types available in C programming. You can try to execute the following program to see the output, which is identical to the result generated by the above C example.
Java also provides a full range of built-in functions for mathematical calculation and you can use them in the same way as you did in C programming. Python is a little different from C and Java; it categorizes numbers in int , long , float and complex. Python also provides a full range of built-in functions for mathematical calculations and you can use them in the same way you have used them in C programming.
If it was easy to work with numbers in computer programming, it would be even easier to work with characters. Characters are simple alphabets like a, b, c, d In computer programming, any single digit number like 0, 1, 2, Here, ch is a variable of character type which can hold a character of the implementation's character set and 'a' is called a character literal or a character constant. Not only a, b, c, A character data type consumes 8 bits of memory which means you can store anything in a character whose ASCII value lies in between to , so it can hold any of the different values.
A character data type can store any of the characters available on your keyboard including special characters like! Note that you can keep only a single alphabet or a single digit number inside single quotes and more than one alphabets or digits are not allowed inside single quotes. Many programming languages support a concept called Escape Sequence. Java handles character data types much in the same way as we have seen in C programming. However, Java provides additional support for character manipulation.
Python does not support any character data type but all the characters are treated as string, which is a sequence of characters. We will study strings in a separate chapter. You do not need to have any special arrangement while using a single character in Python. Consider a situation where we need to store five integer numbers. It was simple, because we had to store just five integer numbers.
Now let's assume we have to store integer numbers. Are we going to use variables? To handle such situations, almost all the programming languages provide a concept called array. An array is a data structure, which can store a fixed-size collection of elements of the same data type. An array is used to store a collection of data, but it is often more useful to think of an array as a collection of variables of the same type.
Instead of declaring individual variables, such as number1, number2, Here, 0, 1, 2, All arrays consist of contiguous memory locations. The lowest address corresponds to the first element and the highest address to the last element. To create an array variable in C, a programmer specifies the type of the elements and the number of elements to be stored in that array.
This is called a single-dimensional array. The arraySize must be an integer constant greater than zero and type can be any valid C data type. If you omit the size of the array, an array just big enough to hold the initialization is created. You will create exactly the same array as you did in the previous example. The above statement assigns element number 5th in the array with a value of All arrays have 0 as the index of their first element which is also called the base index and the last index of an array will be the total size of the array minus 1.
An element is accessed by indexing the array name. This is done by placing the index of the element within square brackets after the name of the array. The above statement will take the 10th element from the array and assign the value to var variable. The following example uses all the above-mentioned three concepts viz. Java supports arrays, but there is a little difference in the way they are created in Java using the new operator.
Python does not have a concept of Array, instead Python provides another data structure called list , which provides similar functionality as arrays in any other language. During our discussion about characters , we learnt that character data type deals with a single character and you can assign any character from your keyboard to a character type variable.
Now, let's move a little bit ahead and consider a situation where we need to store more than one character in a variable. We have seen that C programming does not allow to store more than one character in a character type variable. We have also seen how to use the concept of arrays to store more than one value of similar data type in a variable.
If you are done with the above example, then I think you understood how strings work in C programming, because strings in C are represented as arrays of characters. C programming simplified the assignment and printing of strings. It indicates the end of the string and it means if you want to store a 5 character string in an array, then you must define an array size of 6 as a good practice, though C does not complain about it.
We can constitute a string in C programming by assigning character by character into an array of characters. We can constitute a string in C programming by assigning a complete string enclosed in double quote. We can print a string character by character using an array subscript or a complete string by using an array name without subscript.
Most of the programming languages provide built-in functions to manipulate strings, i. For more, you can check our detailed tutorial on C programming or any other programming language. Though you can use character arrays to store strings, but Java is an advanced programming language and its designers tried to provide additional functionality.
Java provides strings as a built-in data type like any other data type. It means you can define strings directly instead of defining them as array of characters. Java makes use of the new operator to create string variables as shown in the following program. Creating strings in Python is as simple as assigning a string into a Python variable using single or double quotes. Python does not support character type; these are treated as strings of length one, thus also considered a substring.
To access substrings, use the square brackets for slicing along with the index or indices to obtain your substring. A function is a block of organized, reusable code that is used to perform a single, related action. Functions provide better modularity for your application and a high degree of code reusing. You have already seen various functions like printf and main. These are called built-in functions provided by the language itself, but we can write our own functions as well and this tutorial will teach you how to write and use those functions in C programming language.
Good thing about functions is that they are famous with several names. Different programming languages name them differently, for example, functions, methods, sub-routines, procedures, etc. If you come across any such terminology, then just imagine about the same concept, which we are going to discuss in this tutorial.
Let's start with a program where we will define two arrays of numbers and then from each array, we will find the biggest number. If you are clear about the above example, then it will become easy to understand why we need a function. In the above example, there are only two sets of numbers, set1 and set2, but consider a situation where we have 10 or more similar sets of numbers to find out the maximum numbers from each set. In such a situation, we will have to repeat, processing 10 or more times and ultimately, the program will become too large with repeated code.
To handle such situation, we write our functions where we try to keep the source code which will be used again and again in our programming. Now, let's see how to define a function in C programming language and then in the subsequent sections, we will explain how to use them.
A function definition in C programming consists of a function header and a function body. Some functions perform the desired operations without returning a value. The function name and the parameter list together constitute the function signature. When a function is invoked, you pass a value as a parameter. This value is referred to as the actual parameter or argument.
The parameter list refers to the type, order, and number of the parameters of a function. Parameters are optional; that is, a function may contain no parameters. While creating a C function, you give a definition of what the function has to do. To use a function, you will have to call that function to perform a defined task.
If you are clear about functions in C programming, then it is easy to understand them in Java as well. Java programming names them as methods , but the rest of the concepts remain more or less same. Once again, if you know the concept of functions in C and Java programming, then Python is not much different. A computer file is used to store data in digital format like plain text, image data, or any other content. Computer files can be organized inside different directories.
Files are used to keep digital data, whereas directories are used to keep files. Computer files can be considered as the digital counterpart of paper documents. While programming, you keep your source code in text files with different extensions, for example, C programming files end with the extension. However, many times, we need to create files using computer programs as well.
We can modify an existing file using a computer program. File input means data that is written into a file and file output means data that is read from a file. Actually, input and output terms are more related to screen input and output. When we display a result on the screen, it is called output. Similarly, if we provide some input to our program from the command prompt, then it is called input.
For now, it is enough to remember that writing into a file is file input and reading something from a file is file output. Before we start working with any file using a computer program, either we need to create a new file if it does not exist or open an already existing file. Almost all the programming languages provide syntax to open files in read-only mode. All the programming languages provide syntax to open files in write-only mode. Append mode is ultimately a write mode, which allows content to be appended at the end of the file.
Almost all the programming languages provide syntax to open files in append mode. In the following sections, we will learn how to open a fresh new file, how to write into it, and later, how to read and append more content into the same file. You can use the fopen function to create a new file or to open an existing file.
This call will initialize an object of the type FILE , which contains all the information necessary to control the stream. Here is the prototype, i. Opens a text file for writing.
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